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The Constellation Gemini

The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by .4 gm/cm2 for the four-day mission, was 82 mrad. The particles inside the spacecraft had been recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation atmosphere under shielded circumstances at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous. The desert Southwest is experiencing rapid development of utility-scale solar and wind energy facilities. Although clean renewable energy has environmental positive aspects, it can also have negative impacts on wildlife and their habitats. Understanding these impacts and correctly...